Please see attached article by authors Paul Wagner and Jeannine A. Vail as published in the Naval Engineers journal. CLICK HERE
Ships' steering systems have progressed over the ages, driven by the need for more powerful and reliable systems. From simple mechanical devices thousands of years old to the latest electro-hydraulic systems, progress has been relatively slow but constant. Present systems tend to be the result of a series of modifications of older designs in response to a need for increased performance and reliability. This paper describes the historical development leading to present designs and discusses a new approach which not only eliminates most problems inherent in present designs but also provides a more economical, more compact, and more cost effective solution as verified by detailed reliability and maintainability analysis.